Articles
Iran is still at the forefront of Iraq's foreign policy priorities

According to a survey conducted of Iraqi citizens:

Iran is still at the forefront of Iraq's foreign policy priorities

The findings of a survey conducted by Tehran International Studies and Research Institute(tisri) in June of this year, regarding the priorities of Iraqi foreign policy, shows that according to the citizens of this country, the Islamic Republic of Iran must be at the Priority of Iraq's foreign policy. The results of the survey, which was conducted among 400 Iraqi citizens of different ethnicities and religions, show that from the aspect of 36.26% of respondents, Iran has still the utmost importance in Iraqi foreign policy. After Iran, the United States with 22.9 percent, Europe Union with 16.42 percent, Persian Gulf countries with 16.2% and Turkey with 8.22% are in the next ranks. Distinctive feature of this...

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America's withdrawal from Triple INF, JCPOA, OST and increased entropy in the international system

America's withdrawal from Triple INF, JCPOA, OST and increased entropy in the international system

After the US withdrew from the JCPOA and Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces treaty (INF) now it's time for the Open Skies Treaty (OST). Three types of international agreement which are common in security-military nature. Washington's justification for withdrawing from the treaty as a key treaty on increasing transparency and trust in transatlantic relations, as well as Russia's security-military relations with Europe and the United States, it is the same kind of previous justification. In connection with the withdrawal from this treaty, in terms of the current team of US Security and foreign policy decision making, the problem is that Russia has long violated the treaty, just as it repeatedly violates a...

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Europe and China relations in the post-Corona period

Europe and China relations in the post-Corona period

By increasing the number deaths from coronavirus in the world and excessive economic damage caused by the spread and epidemic of the virus, various theories have been expressed about the causes of the spread of this virus in the world and international relations. Some actors with accusing others seeks to bring up the irresponsibility of the government against the spread of the virus and some have pointed the accusation finger toward China as the source of the virus and they have accused the Chinese government of failing to provide accurate and timely information on the prevalence of coronavirus in the early stages and even in secrecy. In the meantime, some countries have demanded to pay compensation from the...

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The viewpoint of Afghan immigrants on the Islamic Republic of Iran's Performance in the Corona Crisis

The viewpoint of Afghan immigrants on the Islamic Republic of Iran's Performance in the Corona Crisis

The viewpoint of Afghan immigrants on the Islamic Republic of Iran's Performance in the Corona Crisis The findings of a survey conducted by Afghan immigrants living in Iran shows that 71% of respondents were fully satisfied with the provision of healthcare to Afghan migrants and in contrast, 10.5 percent in this regard, they Have evaluated the performance of the Iranian government weak. Also, 75% of the respondents the social cohesion of the Iranian people in the face of the Corona crisis have known very good and acceptable. Respondents believed that, respectively the performance of the governments of Iran, China and Germany, in the face of the Corona crisis has been favorable and the performance of the...

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Infectious diseases and developments in national security threats

Infectious diseases and developments in national security threats

Introduction   Coronavirus is a member of a large family of viruses that can cause a variety of illnesses, from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as: "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome" or "MERS" and "Acute Respiratory Syndrome" or "SARS". The emerging coronavirus (Covid-19), is a new type of family that has not been identified before. The new virus, which has infected tens of thousands of people in China's Wuhan province and around the world over the past two months has caused acute respiratory problems with its daily expansion, there is a concern that it will become a global epidemic. In the early stages, the virus only existed in China, but...

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The normalization of Japan's security policy and the perspective of regional and international actors

The normalization of Japan's security policy and the perspective of regional and international actors

Introduction   Japan is the world's third economy and the eighth military power in the world in terms of military budget. This country in terms of military and security in the years after World War II due to the imposed constitution (Article 9 of the Constitution) was banned from acting independently in world security processes, until recent years was defined as a role of the state "unusual" in international relations. Adopting purely economic strategy and giving the national security to the United States, led Japan to play a passive role in international politics and, at the same time, safe for its neighbors (China, South Korea, North Korea, other Southeast Asian countries, Russia,...

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Corona virus and the necessity of multilateralism in the interdependent world

Corona virus and the necessity of multilateralism in the interdependent world

Introduction Accept this problem that in today's world, international risks cross countries' natural borders and in a global way, they engage all societies, indicates a kind of political maturity in all international actors. The politicization of economic issues, an increasing importance of environmental pollution and Its dangers to societies, by influencing international relations, it shows the vulnerability of governments and societies in the face of events which occur in the territory of other countries. In this space, the main feature of the international system, is complexity, numerous and interfering relationships, conflict and cooperation. Corona virus, which is now known by the official name...

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The Trump Administration and Sovietization of the Islamic Republic of Iran:

The Trump Administration and Sovietization of the Islamic Republic of Iran:

How and Why?

Abstract It seems the administration of the US president, Donald Trump, pursues the strategy of exerting “maximum pressure” on Iran to achieve the goal of the Sovietization of Islamic Republic. In doing this, the incumbent US administration is trying to take advantage of experiences gained by the administration of former US president, Ronald Reagan, in its faceoff with the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1991. According to findings of this research, the theoretical backbone supporting this project is comprised of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies (FDD) and some other rightwing and conservative American think tanks, including the Heritage Foundation and the American...

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The Nature of Alliances in the Middle East:

The Nature of Alliances in the Middle East:

Power or Identity?

Abstract   The main question in this paper is about the nature of alliances in the Middle East as one of the most important, strategic and, of course, stressful regions in the world. In other words, the question is if the nature of alliances in this region, like similar alliances in the West, can be determined by identity-based solidarity and the formation of common and collective identities based on fundamental norms”. In addition, when discussing the nature and causes of alliances in this region, should the role of identity-based factors be downplayed in favor of the role of power and power balance as well as threat balance? The main argument of this paper is that contrary to Barnett, a theorist...

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Theoretical Basis of Sanctions against Iran’s Nuclear Program:

Theoretical Basis of Sanctions against Iran’s Nuclear Program:

A Comparison between Diplomacies of Trump and Obama Administrations

Abstract From the perspective of international relations, sanction imposers or sender countries have different motives for using this instrument. The change in the US administration’s policy regarding the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is one of the remarkable examples in this context. This paper tries to answer the following question: What is the theoretical different between (Donald) Trump and (Barak) Obama administrations’ sanction policies regarding Iran despite of being compliant with its obligations based on JCPOA. The paper’s assumption is that while the sanction policy of Obama administration was based on making Iran more committed to international norms, the main motive of...

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The United States’ Containment Policy toward Iran

The United States’ Containment Policy toward Iran

Abstract   The US containment policy toward Iran after the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 was actually a form of controlling policy, paralleled with a form of selective interaction. The US adopted the aforementioned policy to restrain Iran’s influence, narrowing down Iran’s strategic weight in regional and international arenas and ultimately changing Iran’s political behavior and regime. What are the US containment policy’s components toward Iran? What are the regional impacts of these components on Iran? This paper claims that the US strategies to restrain Iran can be categorized into four components (1.Securitization of Iran, 2.Utilizing punitive diplomatic measures...

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Mutual Relationship between the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Political Identity and the Enemy US

Mutual Relationship between the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Political Identity and the Enemy US

Abstract   Since the victory of the Islamic Revolution and the ensuing hostage taking at the US embassy in Tehran in 1979, the "other" – the enemy US – has turned into one of the most significant demonstrative and stabilizing elements of the political identity of the Islamic Republic of Iran. This article, focused on the role of political identity, seeks to explain why four decades after the Islamic Revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran still sticks to the policy of no-ties with the United States of America, resists US-centered structural pressure and rejects any reconciliation with the US. To answer this question, we resort to the views of political realists. Political realists...

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Shia Islam’s Theological Stance on Terrorism

Shia Islam’s Theological Stance on Terrorism

Abstract   This paper seeks to explain how Shia Islam’s theological stances have prevented the formation and growth of extremism and violence and the spread of terrorism while blocking any attempt by extremists to extend the domain of blasphemy and jihadism to Muslims and carry out criminal and terrorist actions. Studies conducted within the framework of this research show that the Shia theological stances have not allowed the emergence of extremist thoughts and terrorist groups in Shia communities due to following the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad’s family, the institutionalization of wisdom, and the emergence of reformism in the contemporary period in fundamental issues like...

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The Influence of Elections on States’ International Standing

The Influence of Elections on States’ International Standing

(Case Study: Islamic Republic of Iran)

Abstract This paper tries to explain how holding general elections can promote the state’s international standing and authority. This paper is also trying to explain four effective elements, including democratic peace, the importance of international legitimacy, public diplomacy, and clean slate doctrine to help the researchers to find out the prominent role of holding elections in stabilizing and improving the state’s standing in the international arena. A free general election, in fact, establishes the state’s international interactions, in part, because such elections make other states receive specific signs and concepts, paving the way for the intended states to carry out desired reactions....

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Unilateralism Goes Against the Willing of the People

Unilateralism Goes Against the Willing of the People

As we all know, “one belt and one road” is the initiative to the world in 2013 By His Excellency Xi Jinping, China's top leader. Since then, more and more countries have recognized and approved it and expressed their willingness to participate in it. Iran is also one of those countries. “One belt and one road” advocates cooperation and seeks win-win results. Therefore, many countries have been building "one belt and one road" together.

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Critical Evaluation of European Multilateralism

Critical Evaluation of European Multilateralism

Introduction Multilateralism is currently shedding its skin and going through a metamorphosis. Certain countries organize collective, institutional efforts to maintain multilateralism, believing that this is the best way to safeguard their interests, especially in health, security, progress, and environmental protection. In the first instance, the common ground between these countries is how they view the importance of multilateralism, common concerns, and solving global issues. They define its significance on their national agenda by keeping in mind international opposition, in particular from the United States and the Zionist regime. They have envisaged three priorities for their “initial”...

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US Unilateralism and International Economic Security

US Unilateralism and International Economic Security

Introduction The United States has taken many unilateral actions on the international scene in the last few decades due to its economic, political, security, and military position, leading to a trend in its foreign and economic policies. This unilateralist approach to foreign and economic policies has had its peaks and troughs post-World War II throughout most US administrations, but seems to be on the upswing under Donald Trump.   Ever since Trump took office at the White House in 2017, he revived the nationalist slogan of Warren G Harding (the 29th US president from 1921 until his death in 1923) – America First – and adopted unilateral anti-institutional policies, leaving multilateral...

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Unilateralism and International Law

Unilateralism and International Law

International law is the outcome of convergence and multilateralism. Although unilateralism is not unlawful and illegal in all cases, it is still against the spirit, values, and goals set by conventional international law and treaties. Clearly, governments exercise their own rules and regulations within their borders and set their own standards; but when the scope of national decision-makings extends beyond its territorial domain while the affected governments and stakeholders have not been able to air their views on the process of establishing and enforcing these norms and regulations, unilateralism displays its countervalues.   A report by the Study Group of the United Nations International Law...

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US Unilateralism in Non-American Dialogues

US Unilateralism in Non-American Dialogues

Introduction Unilateralism is historically one of the basic approaches of US foreign policy. In 1796, George Washington, first president of the United States, warned US against “permanent coalition” with other countries because as an “Empire of Freedom” US has to be able to act independently at the international arena. Based on this idea, US is an exception in the world and this state of being an exception has to spread over all aspects of its foreign policy. US enjoys the most complete political and social systems of the world and the best geographical and natural situation, therefore this supremacy has to be felt in its foreign policy too. This unilateralism and exceptionalism reach its...

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US international responsibility regarding unilateralism and human rights violation:

US international responsibility regarding unilateralism and human rights violation:

An emphasis on the Right for Health, Right for Development and Right for Food

In the glossary/literature of human rights, the closest term which describes true meaning of “unilateralism” is “unilateral coercive measures”. It reveals both the negative connotation/aspect of unilateralism and its ruthless and compulsory nature. Maybe it was because of the same reason that since early 1970s, it has repeatedly been stressed in every international documents such as the Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States; The New International Economic Order (NIEO); and Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States, that members of the United Nations are banned from carrying out or encouraging any act of force which...

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